Land ownership conflicts
The conflict with San Francisco de Chichausiri Agrarian Cooperative must be resolved. We recommend applying corresponding legislation and based on the legislation, determine the best course of action. To ensure optimal sustainability, the cooperative's activities must be stopped and they must be removed. This process should be taken very slowly and deliberately to guarantee fairness and cooperative members should be considered primary beneficiaries when it comes to implementing alternative use programs within the sanctuary.
While the situation with the cooperative is being resolved, interim agreements should be adopted to improve livestock management and reduce impacts. The number of cattle in the protected area should be reduced. For the moment, livestock activity should be restricted to the established zone and should be conducted under a pasture management and pasture-seeding plan in the buffer zone to avoid overgrazing and reorient the activity to this zone.
Negotiated agreements with the cooperative must be met regarding seasonal norms and consensus of managed cattle in the area, at least while it remains in the zone. The Management Committee should be included in efforts to recover the sanctuary, implement the Master Plan, and execute the tourism and recreation use plan.
The protected area administration should conduct round-ups and capture any livestock in violation of the norms. These animals should be restricted and the owners fined for each head of cattle captured. To implement such actions, an organized and legal system of sanctions and fines is needed, legitimized by a Ministerial Resolution, Director Resolution, or at least an INRENA Management Resolution that would authorize park guards to act against cattle in violation. Such a regulation or resolution must include an explicit list of the infractions and fine amounts and should be promulgated as soon as possible. The protected area administration must strictly implement the sanctuary's territorial zoning and they cannot permit users to transgress the establish norms and agreements. INRENA could charge fines for infractions, but it cannot in this case charge user fees since the area's status as an historic sanctuary does not permit direct uses.
Fences made with stones from the ruins
As long as the cooperative's livestock remain in the protected area, they must be strictly monitored. Cattle, sheep, and horses should be managed according to the norms and recommendations put forth by the protected area's management. Sanitary control of all livestock, including alpacas, should be strict in order to prevent potential disease transmission to native vicuñas. In addition, dogs should be removed from the protected area all together.
Flora and fauna restoration should be promoted by controlling livestock activity, limiting it to identified zones. Active restoration will be required in altered habitats in order to allow gradual reestablishment of native species.
Rather than cattle, camelids should be promoted-specifically vicuñas. The camelid species, specifically the vicuñas, provide better management possibilities, they are a conservation target, and their wool can reap high market returns-even more than cattle. In this way, livestock grazing would be converted into a tourist and recreational activity that is in tune with the sanctuary.
Alpacas present in the sanctuary
There should be more coordination with the herders responsible for cooperative livestock to formally include them in the sanctuary's protection. First, so they will apply more sustainable management alternatives in their activities and second so they will be sanctuary watchmen and denounce any illegal hunting or extracting, actions that would be inline with defending the herd.
The protected area's focus must shift to tourism promotion and vicuña management, especially since the vicuñas are one of the area's conservation targets. Removal of other incompatible activities should be done gradually but safely to guarantee the area's conservation status worthy of its categorization over the medium and long term. Members of the cooperative that will be affected by livestock removal should be included in alternative activities and should benefit from those alternatives.
Historic sanctuaries are protected areas where only indirect uses are sanctioned; no direct natural resource use is permitted. Therefore, control should be intensified to stop resource extraction from within the protected area. Administrators should take actions needed to restore landscape environments and biological diversity conservation.
Tourism needs to be developed such that the sanctuary receives visitors throughout the year and tourism pressure needs to be reduced during the first week of August during the celebrations commemorating the Battle of Junín when thousands of people visit the sanctuary at one time. Tourism should be distributed during different times of years to prevent excessive tourist concentrations and different routes focused on the sanctuary's natural and cultural values (historical and archeological) promoted.
Tourism and recreation development should follow conservation objectives of each established zone, minimizing environmental and socio-cultural impacts in order to achieve sustainable tourism in the sanctuary.
Close coordination is needed between regional agencies and tourism operators to promote organized, sustainable tourism. The agencies and companies play an important role in tourism planning in the region. They develop packages and determine destinations, activities, and visitor experiences, and they are the driving forces between tourism promotion and advertising. There are a few tourist agencies from the city of Tarma operating in the sanctuary that offer tours of the Junín Complex circuit that includes visit to the Huayllay National Sanctuary, Junín National Reserve, and Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary.
Colcas or circular deposits, a potentially important tourist attraction
Tourist guides are an important group for tourism activity planning because they have direct contact with the visitors. Because of their experience and knowledge, they must be incorporated in planning activities. As long as the guides' status is clearly defined and are trained well enough, they can provide quality information to each and every visitor to awaken their interest and sensitivity.
Junín Municipality should urgently attend to the garbage dump problem. The dump should be removed and relocated in an appropriate place outside of the sanctuary's area of influence. A closure plan should be elaborated that evaluates the impacts associated with moving the dump. Before the dump is completely abandoned, it should be covered with soil and replanted with native vegetation to facilitate ecosystem recovery. The new dump should be designed following appropriate technical indications and procedures.
To guarantee compliance with norms and rules regulating the sanctuary, constant patrols and permanent vigilant actions are needed to control prohibited activities. Control of access needs to be strengthened, as do patrols within the interior of the sanctuary.
Mechanisms should be implemented to ensure public participation in planning, management, evaluation, management, and benefits sharing. To do so, public interest must be reconciled with sanctuary goals. The first step must be environmental and awareness education.
An effective communication strategy must be designed. A favorable opinion about natural resource conservation in the sanctuary should be promoted through environmental education and special attention should be given to highlighting the important historical events that transpired there as well as its landscape and biological diversity.
Staff, volunteers, and members of the management committee involved in managing the area need additional training in biological and natural aspects as well as administration and management issues.
Research should be encouraged. Of course, any research must be compatible with the objectives of the area, its zoning, respective management plans and policies and regulations. Research must not negatively affect biological or socio-cultural values.
Additional fund-raising mechanisms should be explored to raise money to finance sanctuary activities.
Appropriate signage is needed in the sanctuary and some sort of protection is needed to keep vehicles on existing roads instead of allowing them to go off-road as they please. Sanctuary regulations state that building new roads and access routes is prohibited, therefore any vehicle creating new routes by driving off-road should be strictly controlled.
Vehicles often drive off-road affecting soil and vegetation
Logistical support must be provided to the sanctuary's administration so that they can carry out their activities more effectively. For example, they urgently need mobility-a motorcycle would be a major improvement over status quo-and communication equipment, preferably radio communication.
The cooperative's presence in the area must be dealt with in a way that guarantees physical and judicial security.
Finally, the National Cultural Institute should increase its presence in the zone. They should staff a regional representative in Junín who would be responsible for managing and maintaining the museum and archeological remains.